Friday, February 22, 2008


We all know what happens when a fire goes out. The flames die down and the fire is gone for good. So when we first learn that the name for the goal of Buddhist practice, nibbana (nirvana), literally means the extinguishing of a fire, it's hard to imagine a deadlier image for a spiritual goal: utter annihilation. It turns out, though, that this reading of the concept is a mistake in translation, not so much of a word as of an image. What did an extinguished fire represent to the Indians of the Buddha's day? Anything but annihilation.

According to the ancient Brahmans, when a fire was extinguished it went into a state of latency. Rather than ceasing to exist, it became dormant and in that state — unbound from any particular fuel — it became diffused throughout the cosmos. When the Buddha used the image to explain nibbana to the Indian Brahmans of his day, he bypassed the question of whether an extinguished fire continues to exist or not, and focused instead on the impossibility of defining a fire that doesn't burn: thus his statement that the person who has gone totally "out" can't be described.

However, when teaching his own disciples, the Buddha used nibbana more as an image of freedom. Apparently, all Indians at the time saw burning fire as agitated, dependent, and trapped, both clinging and being stuck to its fuel as it burned. To ignite a fire, one had to "seize" it. When fire let go of its fuel, it was "freed," released from its agitation, dependence, and entrapment — calm and unconfined. This is why Pali poetry repeatedly uses the image of extinguished fire as a metaphor for freedom. In fact, this metaphor is part of a pattern of fire imagery that involves two other related terms as well. Upadana, or clinging, also refers to the sustenance a fire takes from its fuel. Khandha means not only one of the five "heaps" (form, feeling, perception, thought processes, and consciousness) that define all conditioned experience, but also the trunk of a tree. Just as fire goes out when it stops clinging and taking sustenance from wood, so the mind is freed when it stops clinging to the khandhas.

Thus the image underlying nibbana is one of freedom. The Pali commentaries support this point by tracing the word nibbana to its verbal root, which means "unbinding." What kind of unbinding? The texts describe two levels. One is the unbinding in this lifetime, symbolized by a fire that has gone out but whose embers are still warm. This stands for the enlightened arahant, who is conscious of sights and sounds, sensitive to pleasure and pain, but freed from passion, aversion, and delusion. The second level of unbinding, symbolized by a fire so totally out that its embers have grown cold, is what the arahant experiences after this life. All input from the senses cools away and he/she is totally freed from even the subtlest stresses and limitations of existence in space and time.

The Buddha insists that this level is indescribable, even in terms of existence or nonexistence, because words work only for things that have limits. All he really says about it — apart from images and metaphors — is that one can have foretastes of the experience in this lifetime, and that it's the ultimate happiness, something truly worth knowing.

So the next time you watch a fire going out, see it not as a case of annihilation, but as a lesson in how freedom is to be found in letting go.

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

Mind Like Fire Unbound by Thanissaro Bhikku

The Fire Sermon – Samyutta Nikaya 35:28

Picture by: RSH84@Flickr


Krishna. N. C. said...

My Dear Solitaire,
Very informative post...Thanks so much for sharing..I never really had an idea what Fire burning out actually symbolized according to The Buddhist practise.
Time and again our mystics and masters have shown the way to attain bliss and the foremost of the teachings say to LET GO of our bound, attached being..
I really am so happy to get a new insight into Buddhism, whose teachings i so dearly admire and try to adapt!
Thanks so much my dear...I love your posts:))Keep up that sparkle!
Love and prayers for a true Solitaire ;)

Anonymous said...
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solitaire said...

Thank you, Krishna. You often make me blush..

I remember when i first encountered the idea of nirvana or nibbana, i had great difficulty grasping the essence of it. So when i came across Thanissaro Bhikkhu's teaching on this subject some time last year, it felt like scales dropped from my eyes. This is one of Buddha's most powerful teaching and I felt a great sense of gratitude to Thanissaro Bhikkhu for his clear elucidation on this and various subjects.

My very best wishes to you, Krishna :-)

Krishna. N. C. said...

That was a very interesting post. I can only hope to be the "enlightened arahant, who is conscious of sights and sounds, sensitive to pleasure and pain, but freed from passion, aversion, and delusion."

Otherwise, complete detachment as highlighted in Buddhism I personally feel is impractical in today's times (unless you're living your life as a priest or something) and to an extent selfish too. I'd rather take care and support my loved ones (carrying the baggage that comes along with it) than be heartlessly 'detached' just for a very personal spiritual enlightenment, that you may or may not achieve. What are your thoughts on this my friend?

- Kunal
(bro of Krishna/Deciphering Spirituality blog)

PS: I've also made a comment on your "No answers" post.

solitaire said...

Hello Kunal :-)

Which post did you leave a comment on? I couldn't find it...

I think it really depends on how we understand by the term 'detachment'. The word seems to have taken on connotations of aloofness, unmoving, untouched by external events, uninvolved with the world, etc. My humble understanding of 'detachment' is one of not becoming too 'attached' to things, people, views and outcomes. I do what i can, i do what i must, with all my heartfelt sincerity. And i love a love like all undying lovers do.. I do not expect any specific outcome.. It is a gift given freely, and the gift is set free to go on its own course, much like prayers and blessings.

I am still learning...

Kunal said...

Hey man!

Oh I'm sorry, I meant your 'questions' post. Stupid me.

Hmm, it does make sense the way you put it. I didn't dare to give it a different connotation and took the meaning quite literally I guess. I like how you say you do your very best but aren't desirous of any specific outcome - almost like leaving it in the hands of God and accepting the result gracefully.

I hope to have many such interesting discussions with you in the future, even though I'm always incredibly busy online. I'll leave it to my sis to prod me every time you make a beautiful post. :)

Take care and all the best!
- Kunal